What is Muda, Mura and Muri?

Muda, mura and muri are referred to as waste and waste in Japanese. In the Toyota production system, waste integrity, which is referred to as the enemies of lean manufacturing, causes disruptions in transaction processes. In general, 3M constitutes the main causes of irregularities and wastes within the plans.

Muda (waste), mura (inequality) and muri (inequality) are words that refer to unplanned production, errors and waste. The 3 main types of waste identified by Toyota are separate but interconnected causes of wastage and are obstacles to the realization of lean manufacturing.

Muda (Waste)

It represents the process of identifying any activity that does not create value and can be considered as waste, and waste in lean production. According to Mudaya, wastes are divided into 7 main categories;

Transportation: It is the transfer of products or materials from one place to another without any reason.

Stock: Inventory waste due to waiting, repairs and overproduction.

Movement: Excessive or unnecessary movement of an employee or machine to perform an operation.

Waiting: When operators stand idle while machines are running, equipment malfunctions or necessary parts are delayed.

Overproduction: Production in excess of what is expected and desired

Over-processing: Unnecessary operations on parts caused by incorrect and unnecessary process progression.

Defects: The reworking of materials that do not meet quality standards or defective materials or the remanufacturing of defective ones.

Muri (overburden):

Muri, meaning overload, can occur when too much waste is extracted from Mura and functioning. Operating equipment and manpower beyond their capacity can lead to wear and tear and breakdowns for machines and stress and inefficiency for manpower. Inefficient labor can create errors and defects.

Mura (unevenness):

Uneven distributions that can result from planning, timing errors, work speed and mudas are called mura. Mura prevents processes from proceeding in an orderly and stable manner. Unbalanced allocations can cause pressure on the weighted side, disruption on the other side of a stalled process, or a supply gap.

This waste integrity, also called the three enemies of Lean, can occur not only in production environments such as factories, but also in offices and service environments. It can even be said to be more hidden and intense in office environments. While there are visible processes and inventories in factories, in office environments these business processes are hidden in mailboxes and IT systems.

Taken together, these three concepts help to make business processes more efficient, balanced and sustainable. In the Toyota Production System and lean manufacturing approaches, minimizing these three types of waste is one of the cornerstones of creating quality and efficient production processes.

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